Clang, Clang, Clang, Went the Trolley: Automobiles Killed the Los Angeles Red Car Trolleys

If you ever ask an Angeleno why there is no efficient public transportation system in Los Angeles, chances are you will hear this widely believed myth: Los Angeles is too widely spread out to ever support an effective public transportation system.  Actually, for more than half a century, Los Angeles served as a public transportation … [Read more…]

Disney’s California Adventure Reinforces Fictitious Narrative of Spanish Fantasy

Concept Artwork for Disney’s California Adventure Entrance (Courtesy of Disney) Disneyland will never be completed.  It will continue to grow as long as there is imagination left in the world. —Walt Disney Disneyland is exactly that, an imagined space.  Located in Anaheim, Disneyland is in the center of the Northern Orange County suburbs.  Sheltered from … [Read more…]

Ringing the Bell of Friendship: Korean Friendship Bell Echoes Liberty in San Pedro

Korean Friendship Bell at Angels Gate Park in San Pedro, CA The Republic of Korea generously gifted the city of Los Angeles with a bronze bell in commemoration of the U.S. Independence Bicentennial.¹  In addition to commemorating the bicentennial, the Republic of Korea also acknowledged U.S. veterans service during the Korean War.  Paid for by … [Read more…]

Shining a Light on LA’s Discrimination of Japanese Americans

California’s exclusion of Japanese Americans existed decades before Executive Order 9066.  Case in point, California’s political system prevented Japanese immigrants from exercising their full legal rights, since there was no path to citizenship for Japanese immigrants.  In addition, the California legislature passed the Webb-Haney Alien Land Law (California Alien Land Law) in 1913.¹  Japanese immigrants … [Read more…]